"A painting requires a little mystery, some vagueness, and some fantasy." Edgar Degas
德加花了他的大部分生活绘画舞者,但是perhaps it was as a means of studying movement rather than an innate interest in ballet. In his own words:
I cannot think of a better demonstration of movement than ballet. The dancers twist, turn, and pivot effortlessly through space. What a wonderfully impossible challenge to capture this on a flat surface. Especially given we artists don't have the benefit of multiple frames in time like in film or even photography. We must create theillusion用单个图像的运动。
Degas不是唯一一遍又一遍地绘制相同或相似的主体的艺术家。克劳德莫奈用了它睡莲，的鲁昂大教堂，的滑铁卢桥. 文森特·梵高用橄榄树和向日葵.Painting the same subject allows you to gain a more intimate understanding of it. The constant subject also allows you to better observe changes in other elements such as color and light, which was Monet's chief concern.
无论如何，回到Degas。下边是巴黎歌剧院的芭蕾舞.Notice how the dancers' movement is shadowed by the surrounding brushwork. This is an effective technique for reiterating movement if used correctly, but careful not to overdo it. Less is more here.
There are also severalimplied linescreated by the dancers and audience looking around. Implied lines being lines that don't physically exist but are merely implied or suggested. A line of vision is an implied line. We want to look where others are looking. In this case, the lines of vision help direct us through the painting.
Dancer With a Bouquet of Flowers在一个动作中捕捉舞者。她的双臂张开，一条腿抬起，另一条腿转动。有一种奇妙的平衡感。
S码tage Rehearsal是一幅忙碌的绘画。它feelslike a rehearsal. People are moving, dancing, pointing, talking. Again, movement is inherent in this scene, so Degas didn't need to rely on painting techniques to inject movement into the painting.
Deux Danseuses另一方面，是一个相对静止的场景。没有跳舞，摆动，枢转，指导，说话。只有两个舞者休息和伸展在长凳上。在这种情况下，Degas确实使用Stratchy Brushwork和Line注入了运动和生命感。
Degas relied on line to reiterate forms and outline key objects, as opposed to the delicate rendering of light and shadow. The result is an illustrator-like effect. Van Gogh did a similar thing, though he was more overt with his linework.
下边是an earlier painting by Degas featuring similar use of outlining. Though this one is more sophisticated and the colors more appealing, to me anyway.
- Less rendered=less focus.
Unfortunately, his eyesight started failing from around 1880. As you can probably tell from his later work, which although beautiful, features some odd colors. A similar thing happened to Claude Monet. Life can be cruel.
下面也许是我最喜欢的德加画，Dancer Posing for a Photographer.这是背景中的黑暗内部和月光下的美妙游戏。
In芭蕾舞演员，的dancer's vibrant colors merge with the background. Her dress seems to be the key feature, with the most vibrant reds, oranges, and intricate patterns. Compare this to her understated face, hair, and arm. Degas himself said he was interested in "painting pretty clothes".
Tip:作为艺术家，你decide what's important.
下边是one of Degas' later paintings,Dancers at the Barre，完成于1900年。这两位舞者被描绘成淡蓝色和灰色，背景是生动的橙色。通常，我们看到的是丰富生动的色彩，而不是背景。德加在这里扳动了开关。
Degas做了类似的东西芭蕾舞演员With Arms Crossed.Vivid reds frame the delicate and understated dancer. Black outlines help distinguish the two areas.
"It is very good to copy what one sees; it is much better to draw what you can't see anymore but is in your memory. It is a transformation in which imagination and memory work together. You only reproduce what struck you; that is to say, the necessary." Edgar Degas via理解艺术通过Lois Fichner-Rathus
下边是舞蹈课.它has unusual dimensions, being much wider than it is tall. This allowed Degas to cover a large area of the room without the ceiling and floor taking up much space in the painting.
As with many of Degas' paintings, instead of having a single dominant focal point, he opts for several lesser points of interest. This gives our eyes a number of different places to jump between.
Finally, a quick point on simplification. Notice how Degas didn't detail the framed image hanging on the wall. You just get a faint suggestion of some colors and shapes. Though this is just a minor aspect of this painting, it's an important lesson in general.艺术家简化了世界；我们不添加更多细节。
The Dancing Classfeatures a similar balance between positive and negative space. Had Degas used intricate detail for the background and floor, our attention would be diluted.
黑人紧随的小提琴手充当了一个黑暗的口音和精致和白色穿着舞者的鲜明对比。镜子还为绘画添加了一个有趣的维度。它让我想起了ÉdouardManet的在叶柄的酒吧 - Bergère，我在报纸上写的Manet artist spotlight post.
Here's Manet's painting for reference.右边是一面镜子，还是双面吧台？I remember there being some interesting discussion on this在评论中.
下边是Ballet Rehearsal(I can sense Degas was struggling to come up with different names for all these dancer paintings). The architecture, namely the grand windows in the back, provides a foundation of linear perspective. Notice how the lines in the room converge towards the same invisible point on the horizon line. This contrasts against the people in the room who are organic, dancing, living, moving. There is a subtle bridge between the rigid architecture and the dancers—look how the extended arms and legs of a few dancers reiterate the room's perspective lines.
- Movement is implied in some subjects. Think of something pointing, running, dancing. In "still" subjects, you need to rely on suggestive brushwork, line, contours, and color to create the illusion of movement and life.
- Composition rules and theory are merely there as a guideline, not a strict rulebook. Feel free to break the rules if it makes sense, as Degas did in many of his paintings.